. https://jmr.com.pk/index.php/ojs <p><strong><em>Journal of Multidisciplinary Review</em></strong><em><strong> (jmr) </strong></em>is a double blind, peer-reviewed, open access, <em>Bi-annual research journal of</em> University of Okara, Pakistan. The journal aims to publish research papers, review papers, mini reviews, case reports, case studies, etc. of multi-subject areas.</p> <p>The Research Journal<em> '<strong>jmr'</strong></em> meets the criteria and standard of Higher Education Commission (HEC) Pakistan. </p> <p>Research articles on all disciplines, more broadly, based on Western sources will also be considered for publication in instances where the editors find the material especially relevant to the objectives of the journal.</p> en-US editor.jmr.uo@gmail.com (Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Arshad) driftikhar.uo@gmail.com (Dr. Iftikhar Alam) Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A Comparative Study of the Problem of Evil with an Emphasis on Swinburne's Divine Justice and John Hick's Theory of Soul Development https://jmr.com.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/2 <p>The issue of evil is one of the most important philosophical and theological issues that has always been debated by various thinkers over the centuries.Swinburne and John Hick are Christian thinkers who have tried to explain the evil problem in the light of the Christian and philosophical teachings of the West.According to Swinburne, evil is the absence of perfection and goodness in an object and is realized in a minimal sense in the world of creation. John Hick also considers evil a necessity of the good world and has defined it as an example.The importance of the issue of evil and its study in the intellectual system of Swinburne and John Hick as contemporary philosophers of Christianity and expressing their similarities and differences in explaining the solution of the problem of evil despite the doctrinal and intellectual similarity is something that can help us with their explanations about familiarize the villain problem solver.In this article, by using descriptive-analytical method and using reliable sources and necessary analyzes,Swinburne and John Hick's thoughts about the nature of evil, types of evil, solutions to its problem and their answers to this problem were examined. Swinburne and Hick do not see the existence of evil in contradiction with the divine existence and the adherent of His attributes, and they believe that many good deeds can be achieved in the presence of evil.</p> Abdullah HosseiniEskandian, Masoumeh Rajabnezhadian Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Multidisciplinary Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jmr.com.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/2 Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Journey of 100 Years of Insulin Discovery, From Past to Present: An Overview https://jmr.com.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/4 <p>Diabetes mellitus has been a devastating, chronic metabolic disease throughout history, predominantly when diagnosed in children, it was generally considered fatal in the initial part of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. Subsequently, insulin extraction from the pancreas was made possible in 1921, a life-changing advancement in human lives. Insulin was discovered and used after 1921. In a hundred years of journey, it has revolutionized diabetes management. In this review, successful use of insulin from past time to its present-day has been discussed, which was used in type 1 diabetes (formerly named insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) and type 2 diabetes (also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) which either shows insulin receptor problem or insulin resistance. Here, we have explained the different aspects of insulin including its formulation and delivery methods in chronological pathways and its advancements in the near future, leading to improved clinical outcomes with clinical experiences in different populations. In the current review, we have included some current challenges and future technological innovations on diabetes therapy using insulin.</p> Dr. Abdul Malik, Dr. Malik Hassan Mehmood, Dr. Muhammad Fayyaz-ur-Rehman Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Multidisciplinary Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jmr.com.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/4 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 A Study of Perception of Various Stakeholders, Regarding Corporal Punishment and Student’s Achievement at Elementary School Level https://jmr.com.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/3 <p>The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of corporal punishment on student’s achievement, on school discipline and on corrective measures. The study was delimited to 30 Govt. Boys schools (15 Elementary Schools +15 High Schools (only elementary sections of High schools were included) of district Khanewal. The study was delimited to 150 elementary students, 150 elementary teachers, 30 headmasters and 60 student’s parents. The total sample comprised of 390 stakeholders. Opinionaire of five point rating scale was developed for the students, teachers, headmasters and parents. The Opinionaire was based on student’s achievement, school discipline, punishment for corrective measures and ways of reduction of corporal punishment in schools. The Opinionaire for students contained 29 items, for teachers 38 items, for headmasters 36 items and for parents 35 items. The collected data was analyzed by using Mean score, SD and Z- test. Through this study, it was found that due to fear of corporal punishment, students become coward, they cannot express their feelings, they cannot create new ideas, they fall a prey to inferiority complex, their self-respect gets lost, they do not study whole heartedly, they do not take interest in studies, they learn to be cunning and dishonest and they leave the school forever.</p> <p>Corporal punishment is not suitable for student’s moral. Corporal Punishment does not guarantee that the unacceptable behavior will be replaced by acceptable behavior and withdrawal of love from child has a bad influence on child’s personality. Corporal Punishment stops repetition of socially undesirable acts. Corporal Punishment helps to retain discipline in a school. Corporal Punishment can be given for the forbidden deed and constructive punishment that motivates socially approved manners is suitable for students. Corporal punishment can be reduced through the active co-operation of school management teachers, parents and society.</p> Dr. Ghulam Murtaza Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Multidisciplinary Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jmr.com.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/3 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Human Welfare and Exalted Mandate of Quran in Perspective of Contemporary Global Trends and Powers https://jmr.com.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/5 <p>This paper deals human welfare concept of Quran associated with contemporary modern trends of human welfare at global level. This is implicated study of Quranic human welfare concept and narrative of contemporary global institutions founded on human welfare basis. Human welfare concept is the most cardinal and vital aspect of Islamic teachings which is deep routed to Quran. Its stance, structure and function can be vividly envisaged in perspective of several verses of Quran. According to it, human being is honored as vicegerent of Allah in this ephemeral world. His living &amp; civic rights and obligations are imperatively mandatory at individual, social, national and global level. The Quranic theory of human welfare was implemented by Prophet Muhammad at all levels and resultantly, an advance state based on human welfare concept at global level, came into existence. According to it, everyone is responsible according to his potential to maintain human welfare. About the disastrous end of Second World War, Human welfare concept at global level was direly sensed. So contemporary global powers sit together in Bretton Wood (American State) to prevent future generations from imminent threat of war. The emerged solution of this meeting on which the consensus of all the participants established, was human welfare. To ensure human welfare at global level, three standards respectively: Balance of payment, trade deficit and debt position, were settled. To monitor these three standards, three institutions: IMF (Internal Monitory Fund), IBRD (International Bank of Reconstruction and Development) and GATT (General Agreement of Trade &amp; Tariff) were established. The purpose and hallmark of these institutions was to assist human resource index for welfare of humanity. This targeted move was a paradigm shift of power from military to economy for rescue of humanity at global level.</p> Dr. Muhammad Tariq Ramzan, Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Multidisciplinary Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jmr.com.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/5 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400 TEACHERS’ INTERACTION WITH VETERAN STUDENTS: A CLASSROOM PERCEPTION https://jmr.com.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/7 <p>Adults come to their class with their rich experience and knowledge. They can interact with their teachers and younger class mates more confidently, and effectively.&nbsp; Teachers respect their point of view, experience and knowledge. But sometimes they stuck on their specific perception and point of view which is irrelevant and wrong. The present study was of qualitative nature, in which two semi-structured interview was used for collection of information about student-teacher interaction in the class of grown up students. The sample of the study was selected from two public and two private universities. Three teachers, who teach the Veteran students were selected as sample. Two veteran students of each selected teacher were taken as participant of study. In this way, twelve teachers and twenty-four students constituted the sample of the study. The Major findings of study revealed that student-teacher interaction as of veteran students was low. Sometimes adults stuck on their point of view.</p> Hira Atiq, Dr. Khalid Saleem, Miss. Maliha Kanwal Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Multidisciplinary Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jmr.com.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/7 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0400